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【芬兰语语法】§94 COMPOUNDING

时间:2017-04-10来源:互联网 进入芬兰语论坛
核心提示:The most common type of compound word is made up of two non-derivednouns. In the following examples, the = symbol indica
(单词翻译:双击或拖选)
 The most common type of compound word is made up of two non-derived
nouns. In the following examples, the = symbol indicates internal word
boundaries. Typical compounds are written without spaces.
kirja=kauppa bookshop
vesi=pullo water-bottle
pallo=peli ball game
kirje=kuori envelope (‘letter=cover’)
kivi=katu paved street (‘stone=street’)
kivi=kausi stone age
kirves=varsi axe handle
keittiö=kone kitchen machine, appliance
242 Finnish: An Essential Grammar
The first noun of these compounds is often in the genitive, e.g.:
meren=ranta seashore (cf. meri ‘sea’)
kirjan=kansi book cover (cf. kirja ‘book’)
auton=ikkuna car window (cf. auto ‘car’)
avaimen=reikä keyhole (cf. avain ‘key’)
The components of a compound may also be derived words themselves:
kaiv/in=kone excavator, digging machine
lävist/ys=kone punching-machine
pes/u=kone washing-machine
kone=apu/lainen machine operator
te/o/llis/uus=tuo/ta/nto industrial (‘industry’) production
Also fairly common are compounds with more than two elements, such as:
maa=talo/us=tuo/ta/nto agricultural production
el/o=kuva=te/o/llis/uus film industry
huone=kalu=tehdas furniture factory
koti=tarve=myynti household sale
kauppa=tase=vaja/us deficit in the balance of trade
täyde/nn/ys=koulu/t/us=kys/el/y further training inquiry
el/in=keino=tulo=vero=laki law concerning the taxation of
earned income
Structurally rather complex compounds are formed when one of the elements
is a deverbal noun and/or a word inflecting in a local case:
työn=saa/nti=mahdollis/uus chance of finding work
tode/llis/uuden=hahmo/tta/mis=kyky ability to give shape to reality
oman=voiton=pyy/nti self-interest
jäsen=hanki/nta=kampanja campaign to recruit members
nuoteista=laulu=taito ability to sing at sight
hallituksessa=ol/o=aika period (‘being’) in the government
pysä/hty/mis=merkin=ant/o=nappi button giving the stop signal
Structures of this type are quite common and productive, particularly in the
written language; compare also this example:
prahassa=käy/mä/ttöm/yys=kompleksi
complex about not having been to Prague
Such complex compounds often correspond to complete sentences. There are
also many compound adjectives, especially with a derived adjective as the
second element:
asian=muka/inen appropriate
saman=koko/inen of the same size
Word formation 243
ala=ikä/inen under-age
vapaa=miel/inen liberal-minded
lyhyt=sana/inen taciturn, curt, brief
moni=mutka/inen complicated
suomen=kiel/inen Finnish-speaking
kansan=taju/inen popular, easily comprehensible
kansain=väli/nen international
pitkä=aika/inen long, long-term
The first element of a two-part compound may occasionally differ from the
basic form. This is particularly the case with nominals ending in -nen
(§20.1); in compounds these have the same stem as in the partitive singular,
for example:
kokonais=valta/inen holistic (cf. kokonainen ‘whole’)
nais=suku=puoli female sex (cf. nainen ‘woman’)
yksityis=kohta/inen detailed (cf. yksityinen ‘individual’)
yleis=kieli standard language (cf. yleinen ‘general’)
ihmis=kunta mankind (cf. ihminen ‘man’)
hevos=paimen horse herder (cf. hevonen ‘horse’)
Other special cases include:
suur=piirteinen large-scale; broad-minded (cf. suuri
‘great’)
kolmi=vuot/ias three-year-old (cf. kolme ‘three’)
neli=vuot/ias four-year-old (cf. neljä ‘four’)
There are not many compound verbs in Finnish. Note however:
alle=kirjoittaa sign
kokoon=panna put together
laimin=lyödä neglect
läpi=käydä go through
yllä=pitää maintain, keep up
jälleen=vakunttaa reinsure
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